Refineries Blockaded as Protests Continue

By John Lee.

Anti-government protesters reportedly blocked the entrance to the Nassiriya oil refinery on Wednesday.

Sources told Reuters that protesters blocked tankers from entering the refinery, causing fuel shortages across Dhi Qar province.

The refinery has capacity of 30,000 barrels per day (bpd), but has recently been producing only 15,000-20,000 bpd.

Anadolu Agency also reported that protesters have closed the Al-Shanafiyah oil refinery, south of the province of Diwaniya.

The source said that hundreds of protesters prevented oil trucks from entering or exiting the facility.

(Sources: Reuters, Middle East Monitor)

Conference: Find Out What’s Happening in Iraqi Business

From Peace to prosperity:

The Conference to find out what’s happening for Iraq business.

The Iraq Britain Business Council (IBBC) Autumn Conference in Dubai on December 8th is set against a backdrop of relative peace and security in Iraq, and the prospect of oil revenues surging through the economy is driving a wider range of business opportunities and a prospective 8% increase in GDP.

Peace is enabling the economy to diversify through the revenues that pay for a range of infrastructure projects. So this Autumn we are focusing on a range of sectors set to benefit from a stable Iraq: namely, Water, Transport and Logistics, Energy and Tech.

The recent protests have also spurred on Government reforms and incentives to drive employment, entrepreneurship and service diversity, and increase the volume of opportunity that lies ahead and the prospects for not just business-to-business but also a burgeoning consumer market.

The Iraqi Electricity Minister will likely be speaking about his reforms to open up the market to SME’s, training and new players. Other ministers including those from Construction and Transport are attending.

The recent announcement of a 10year tax-free period for SMEs in Iraq will also stimulate the Tech entrepreneur market and drive the uptake of engineering skills.

At this conference, we will discuss big-picture economics with Professor Frank Gunter (Lehigh University), Ahmed Tabaqchali (AFC Iraq Fund), and Simon Penny (UK Trade & Investment), who will address the economic backdrop in the Middle East, and the context for Iraq in particular.

The World Bank and Wood Plc will cover the water sector, while Rolls Royce, Basra Gateway Terminal (BGT), and Menzies will look at transport and logistics, and Iraq’s Electricity Minister, GE, Siemens and Enka will focus on energy.

Alongside the conference our Tech Forum brings experts on HealthTech and Educational Tech, including speakers from GE, Siemens Healthcare, KPMG, EY, Google and the British Council, among others.

While key opportunities will be outlined, the real opportunity for business is to meet the people directly involved in contracts and supply-chain opportunities. This is the place to do business, to network and to find out what’s happening in the Middle East’s most potentially dynamic market that is Iraq.

For further information and to find the latest updates on speakers – more are expected – please contact  london@webuildiraq.org or visit the website to register for tickets.

https://iraqbritainbusiness.org/event/autumn-conference-at-the-address-hotel-dubai

The year it’s all on the up…

Oil Exports Down in October

By John Lee.

Iraq’s Ministry of Oil has announced preliminary oil exports for October of 106,859,470 barrels, giving an average for the month of 3.447 million barrels per day (bpd), down from the 3.576 million bpd exported in September.

These exports from the oilfields in central and southern Iraq amounted to 103,540,855 barrels, while exports from Kirkuk amounted to 2,579,837 barrels, and from Qayara 431,486barrels. Exports to Jordan were 307,292 barrels.

Revenues for the month were $6.107 billion at an average price of $57.153 per barrel.

September export figures can be found here.

(Source: Ministry of Oil)

ShaMaran Exceeds 20,000,000 Barrels at Atrush

ShaMaran Petroleum has reported that the Atrush oil field total production has exceeded 20,000,000 barrels.

ShaMaran President and Chief Executive Officer Dr. Adel Chaouch said:

“This cumulative production milestone demonstrates Atrush’s upward path to higher production and has been attained ahead of target.  We look forward to further future production achievements and operational improvements in the Atrush block.”

The Company maintains its Atrush 2019 average daily production guidance of between 30,000 and 35,000 bopd with the prior week’s average production of 46,000 bopd which is within our target exit rate between 45,000 bopd and 50,000 bopd. The Company shares in this production, pursuant to a production sharing contract, with a working interest of 27.6%.

The Atrush field is located 85 km northwest of Erbil and is one of the largest new oil developments in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The field was first discovered in 2011 and oil production started in July 2017.

In its over two years of production the Atrush field has sold all its production to the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq at international market prices less a discount based on quality and transportation charges.

(Source: ShaMaran)

Genel Energy Production Rises; Shares Up

Shares in Genel Energy closed up nearly 7 percent on Friday after the company reported increased production in its operations update for the third quarter and first nine months of 2019. The information contained herein has not been audited and may be subject to further review.

Bill Higgs (pictured), Chief Executive of Genel, said:

We continue to deliver on our strategy. Robust production is generating material free cash flow, which we are recycling into low-risk and quick returning projects, with good progress made on delivering key milestones on schedule for both Sarta and Qara Dagh.

“Rapid payback from our low break-even assets gives us resilience and significant flexibility in regard tofuture capital allocation. The sustainability of our cash-generation provides opportunities to deliver material shareholder value through investing in growth and increasing returns to shareholders.

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

  • $287 million of cash proceeds received as of 30 September 2019, of which $120 million was received in Q3
  • Free cash flow of $121 million in the first nine months of 2019,with capital expenditure of $110 million
  • Cash of $413 million at 30 September 2019 ($281 million at 30 September 2018)
  • Net cash of $115 million at 30 September 2019 (net debt of $16 million at 30 September 2018)

OPERATING PERFORMANCE

  • Net production averaged 36,530 bopd in the first nine months of 2019, an increase of 12% year-on-year, in line with guidance
  • Production in Q3 averaged34,720 bopd (33,700 bopd in Q3 2018)
  • 11 wells have been placed on production in 2019, with a further five wells expected to add to production in the remainder of the year
  • Production and sales by asset during Q3 2019 were as follows:

PRODUCTION ASSETS

  • Tawke PSC (Genel 25% working interest)
    • Tawke PSC production averaged 119,760 bopd in Q3 (113,100 bopd in Q3 2018), including a contribution of 51,940 bopd from the Peshkabir field
    • Production was impacted by a workover of the P-2 well and side-track of the P-3 well at the Peshkabir field, with the latter well expected to come onstream shortly
    • The Tawke-57A deep well to appraise the Jurassic was spud in August 2019 with testing to commence shortly. The Tawke-59 Cretaceous well spud in October 2019 and is expected to come on production later this month, with two Jeribe wells, Tawke-61 and Tawke-62 also set to be placed on production shortly
    • Four additional Jeribe wells are planned to spud by year-end
    • The operator expects to exit the year with Tawke licence production averaging 120,000 bopd and to maintain this rate into 2020
  • Taq Taq PSC (Genel 44% working interest and joint operator)
    • Taq Taq field production averaged 10,870 bopd in Q3 2019 (12,200 bopd in Q3 2018)
    • Following the successful completion of the TT-19 well, which is currently flowing at a rate of c.1,500 bopd, current production from the Taq Taq field is just under 11,000 bopd
    • The TT-34 well is currently drilling and is scheduled to complete later this month. The rig will then move to drill TT-35, which is set to spud in December and is targeting production from the northern flank of the field

PRE-PRODUCTION ASSETS

  • Sarta (Genel 30% working interest)
    • Civil construction work at the Sarta field completed on schedule in October 2019, and work on the construction of the 20,000 bopd central processing facility (‘CPF’) has now begun
    • Commissioning of the CPF and production are on track to begin in the middle of 2020
    • Phase 1A represents a low cost pilot development of the Mus-Adaiyah reservoirs, designed to recover 2P gross reserves of 34 MMbbls
    • Unrisked gross mid case resources relating to the Mus-Adaiyah reservoir only are estimated by Genel at c.150 MMbbls, with overall unrisked gross P50 resources currently estimated by the Company at c.500 MMbbls
  • Qara Dagh (Genel 40% working interest and operator)
    • Genel has signed a contract with Parker Drilling for the drilling of the QD-2 well, and civil construction works are underway in preparation for the upcoming drilling operations
    • The well will test the structural crest 10 km to the north-west of the QD-1 well, which tested sweet, light oil from Cretaceous carbonates
    • The QD-2 well is on track to spud in H1 2020
    • Unrisked gross mean resources at Qara Dagh are currently estimated by Genel at c.200 MMbbls
  • Bina Bawi (Genel 100% and operator)
    • Negotiations between Genel and the Kurdistan Regional Government continue to progress regarding commercial terms for the gas and oil development at Bina Bawi
    • In parallel with these negotiations, Genel is completing the necessary readiness work required to enable rapid progress towards gas and oil developments upon agreement of the commercial terms
    • Genel is confident of a positive outcome to these commercial discussions
  • Somaliland
    • Onshore Somaliland, Stellar Energy Advisors has been appointed to run the farm-out process relating to the SL10B13 block (Genel 75% working interest, operator)
    • Interpretation of the 2018 2D seismic data together with basin analysis has identified multiple stacked prospects, with each of them estimated to have resources of c.200 MMbbls
    • A further program of surface oil seep sampling and analysis reiterates the presence of a working petroleum system on the block
    • It is estimated that a well designed to test multiple stacked prospects could be drilled for c.$30 million gross
  • Morocco
    • On the Sidi Moussa block offshore Morocco (Genel 75% working interest, operator), processing of the multi-azimuth broadband 3D seismic survey acquired in 2018 over the prospective portions of the block is nearing completion
    • The farm-out campaign is on track to begin in Q1 2020, aimed at bringing a partner onto the licence prior to considering further commitments

OUTLOOK AND 2019 GUIDANCE

  • Net production guidance in 2019 maintained at close to Q4 2018 levels of 36,900 bopd
  • 2019 capital expenditure guidance maintained towards the top end of the $150-170 million range
  • Interim dividend of 5¢ per share to be paid on 8 January 2020 to shareholders on the register as of 13 December 2019
    • Given the ongoing strength of cash generation and the positive outlook for the Company, Genel reaffirms its commitment to growing the dividend
  • The Company continues to actively pursue growth and is assessing opportunities to make value-accretive additions to the portfolio

(Source: Genel Energy)

Unaoil Directors Plead Guilty in US

Two brothers have pleaded guilty in the US to facilitating the payment of millions of dollars in bribes to officials in nine countries, including Iraq.

Cyrus Ahsani, 51, and Saman Ahsani, 46, both of United Kingdom (UK), ran the Monaco-based oil and gas consultancy Unaoil.

They are due to be sentenced on 20th April, 2020.

The following announcement was made by the US Department of Justice:

The U.S. Department of Justice said on Wednesday that Cyrus Ahsani, 51, and his 46-year-old brother Saman each pleaded guilty in March to one count of conspiracy to violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) on behalf of companies to secure oil and gas contracts.

They will be sentenced on April 20, 2020, the department said.

Steven Hunter, a 50-year-old British resident and former business development director, also pleaded guilty in August to one count of conspiracy to violate the FCPA.

The former CEO and chief operations officer (COO) of a Monaco-based intermediary company have pleaded guilty for their roles in a scheme to corruptly facilitate millions of dollars in bribe payments to officials in multiple countries. These included Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Libya and Syria. The company’s former business development director also pleaded guilty for his role in paying bribes in Libya.

Assistant Attorney General Brian A. Benczkowski of the Justice Department’s Criminal Division, U.S. Attorney Ryan K. Patrick of the Southern District of Texas, Assistant Director in Charge Timothy R. Slater of the FBI’s Washington Field Office, Inspector in Charge Adrian Gonzales of the U.S. Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) Houston Division and Special Agent in Charge D. Richard Goss of the IRS-Criminal Investigation’s (IRS-CI) Houston Field Office made the announcement.

Cyrus Ahsani, 51, and Saman Ahsani, 46, both of United Kingdom (UK), each pleaded guilty March 25 to one count of conspiracy to violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), for conspiring to facilitate bribes on behalf of companies in foreign countries in order to secure oil and gas contracts. UK resident Steven Hunter, 50, former business development director, pleaded guilty Aug. 2, 2018, to one count of conspiracy to violate the FCPA. Cyrus and Saman Ahsani are set for sentencing April 20, 2020, before U.S. District Judge Vanessa Gilmore of the Southern District of Texas. Hunter’s sentencing is scheduled for March 13, 2020, before U.S. District Judge David Hittner.

According to court documents, former U.S. resident and CEO Cyrus Ahsani and former COO Saman Ahsani managed a Monaco-based intermediary company that provided services for multinational companies operating in the energy sector. From approximately 1999 to 2016, the Ahsanis conspired with others, including multiple companies and individuals, to make millions of dollars in bribe payments to government officials in Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Libya and Syria.

Additionally, court documents reflect Cyrus and Saman Ahsani laundered the proceeds of their bribery scheme in order to promote and conceal the schemes and to cause the destruction of evidence in order to obstruct investigations in the United States and elsewhere. Hunter participated in the conspiracy to violate the FCPA by, among other things, facilitating bribe payments to Libyan officials between about 2009 and 2015.

The FBI, IRS-Criminal Investigation and U.S. Postal Inspection Service conducted the investigation. Trial Attorneys Dennis R. Kihm, Gerald M. Moody Jr., Jonathan P. Robell and Gwendolyn A. Stamper of the Criminal Division’s Fraud Section and Assistant U.S. Attorney Suzanne Elmilady of the Southern District of Texas are prosecuting the case. The Criminal Division’s Office of International Affairs also provided substantial assistance in this matter.

The governments of Australia, Canada, France, Guernsey, Italy, Monaco, the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland and UK provided significant assistance in this matter as did the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and Eurojust.

The Fraud Section is responsible for investigating and prosecuting all FCPA matters. Additional information about the Justice Department’s FCPA enforcement efforts can be found at www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt-practices-act.

(Sources: US Dept of Justice, Reuters)

DNO Shares Down 7.5%

By John Lee.

Shares in DNO ASA, the Norwegian oil and gas operator, were trading down 7.5 percent on Thursday morning, after the company reported a net loss for the third quarter.

The company reported what it described as strong third quarter revenues of USD 227 million, up 33 percent from a year earlier, on the back of solid production averaging 99,300 barrels of oil equivalent per day (boepd) on a Company Working Interest (CWI) basis, up 22 percent year on year.

In its statement, the company added:

Notwithstanding strong underlying performance, 2019 third quarter results were impacted by non-recurring items as well as lower oil prices and higher exploration expenses, resulting in a net loss of USD 96 million.

In the Kurdistan region of Iraq, third quarter production at the Tawke license containing the DNO-operated Tawke and Peshkabir fields (shared 75-25 with partner Genel Energy plc) averaged 119,800 barrels of oil per day (bopd). The Company expects to exit the year with Tawke license production averaging 120,000 bopd and to maintain this rate into 2020. The Company recently reached a significant milestone of 300 million barrels of cumulative oil production from the Tawke and Peshkabir fields.

Activity remains high as the Company continues to deliver its largest drilling campaign in its 48-year history with some 36 wells in 2019, of which 22 are development/infill wells and 14 exploration/appraisal wells. DNO projects full-year operational spend of USD 620 million (post-tax), of which USD 454 million was spent through the end of the third quarter, including USD 244 million in Kurdistan and USD 210 million (post-tax) in the North Sea.

Financial results were impacted by impairment charges of USD 138 million, including USD 89 million for technical goodwill on the Brasse discovery (Norway) and USD 33 million for decommissioning of the Schooner and Ketch fields (United Kingdom).

With USD 228 million in cash from operations during the third quarter, the Company resumed its share buyback program and acquired 23 million shares at a cost of USD 35 million, lifting its overall stake to 58 million treasury shares, representing 5.35 percent of the total outstanding shares at end quarter. DNO also bought back an additional USD 17 million of FAPE01 bonds during the quarter.

DNO maintained its previously approved dividend distribution program with another semi-annual payment of NOK 0.20 per share to be made on 4 November 2019.

“We continue to deliver across a range of operating and financial targets even as we paused this quarter for early spring cleaning of our balance sheet,” said DNO’s Executive Chairman Bijan Mossavar-Rahmani. “Given global headwinds, we are budgeting at the low end of the industry’s Brent price range of USD 60-70 per barrel,” he added.

CWI production during the third quarter included 84,400 bopd from Kurdistan and 14,900 boepd from North Sea assets acquired earlier this year.

In 2019, nine wells were spud in Kurdistan through the end of the third quarter, with an additional ten wells planned for the fourth quarter. In the North Sea, 13 wells were spud through the end of the quarter, with an additional four wells planned for the fourth quarter, including DNO’s first operated exploration well, Canela, in the North Sea since 2007.

DNO exited the third quarter with a cash balance of USD 624 million in addition to USD 110 million in treasury shares and marketable securities.

(Source: DNO)

Oil Ministry Finalises Export Figures for September

By John Lee.

Iraq’s Ministry of Oil has announced oil exports for September of 107,276,327 barrels, giving an average for the month of 3.576 million barrels per day (bpd), down from the 3.603 million bpd exported in August.

These exports from the oilfields in central and southern Iraq amounted to 103,010,306 barrels, while exports from Kirkuk amounted to 3,166,848 barrels, and from Qayara 877,196 barrels. Exports to Jordan were 221,977 barrels.

Revenues for the month were $6.321 billion at an average price of $58.924 per barrel.

August export figures can be found here.

(Source: Ministry of Oil)

Cabinet Approves $25m Desalination Project

By John Lee.

The Cabinet held its regular weekly meeting in Baghdad on Tuesday under the chairmanship of Prime Minister Adil Abd Al-Mahdi.

It authorised the Ministries of Education, Higher Education and Scientific Research, other ministries, public bodies and local councils to recruit holders of post- graduate degrees, and to exempt this round of recruitment from applicable clauses in the 2019 Federal Budget. The exemption is for this year only.

The Cabinet approved a letter of intent from the Ministry of Oil, and authorised it to task Italian company ENI to carry out a project for the supply and installation of two desalination plants at Al-Baradiya in Basra Province with a capacity of 400 cubic meters per hour each, and for the amount of 24,965,768 US dollars.

The Cabinet discussed other policies on employment, housing and transport.

(Source: UN)

Jiyad: EITI Restores Iraq’s Compliance Status

By Ahmed Mousa Jiyad.

Any opinions expressed are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of Iraq Business News.

EITI Restores Iraq’s Compliance Status, with Conditions Attached

The board of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) decided on 16 October 2019 to reinstates Iraq status as a “compliant” country in conformity with the EITI “Standard” and roles of procedure; this is a welcoming and encouraging development.

The decisions was premised on an extensive thorough and transparent “validation” report done by the international secretariat of EITI, which assessed all what Iraq had taken through series of measures and actions designed specifically to address what had caused the Board to suspend Iraq status with EITI in October 2017.* 

Iraq and, particularly, the Ministry of Oil should be congratulated for reinstating the country’s status with EITI; and, while I fully share the sense of achievement as expressed by the MoO announcement on 20 October 2019, I emphatically call upon the Ministry to do what is needed to sustain and enhance this achievement.

Hence, if this case has any meaning and implications for the future of transparency in Iraq generally and in the extractive industry particularly, a set of reminders are mentioned first followed by a set of suggestions for moving forward.

Important Cautions and Reminders

In order not to lose sight and to avoid the false sense of complacency that is, once again, emanates from “mission accomplished” conviction, it is vital to highlights that EITI Board decision was in fact with qualification and conditional. The Iraqi authorities, the Ministry, the civil society organization among others should be aware of and be informed of the following.

First, according to the final “Scorecard”, Iraq’s overall score was “Meaningful progress”, which means “significant aspects of the requirements have been implemented and the broader objective of the requirements is being fulfilled.”

In other words the “Meaningful progress” is in fact the minimum threshold for maintaining the compliance status. The implications are Iraq should, at the minimum, maintain the “Meaningful progress” and should enhance it significantly towards “Satisfactory progress”. Actually, looking at the Scorecard it is really easy and doable to move from “Meaningful progress” to “Satisfactory progress” or even “Beyond”. But any retreat lower than the “Meaningful progress” could cause, once again, another suspension;

Second, EITI Board decision endorses the “Validation Committee” view that Iraq should take necessary corrective measures and actions. Twelve corrections were specifically mentioned and they are related to “Requirements” 1.2; 1.4; 1.5; 2.6.a; 4.1; 4.5; 4.8; 4.9; 6.1; 7.1; 7.3 and 7.4. Again, these gaps and related corrective measures are primarily directed to those requirements that Iraq scored Meaningful progress aiming at elevating the progress to higher levels i.e., Satisfactory or Beyond. Practically, EITI Board is helping Iraqi authorities by specifying where and how to take corrective actions and thus provide a roadmap for what to do next.

Third, the timeframe for taking these corrective actions and their verification is not open-ended; EITI Board decided that progress in addressing the above mentioned corrective actions will be subject to the next “Validation” due to commence on 16 April 2021. This implies that Iraqi EITI (IEITI) and related authorities has eighteen months to finalize what has to be done on each of these corrective actions to insure Iraq remains a compliant country; the failure to do so would risk a repetition of suspension;

Fourth, the above corrective actions should be understood as they are over and above and additional to other requirements that has scored satisfactory progress. In other words there is no tradeoff between “Meaningful progress” and “Satisfactory progress”; what should be there is progression from “Meaningful progress” to “Satisfactory progress” of “Beyond” for all EITI requirements listed in the scorecard and pursuant to latest EITI Standard adopted in Paris, June 2019.

Planning the Way Forward

The IEITI, chaired by the Minister of Oil, is responsible for and should take all necessary actions and measures through agreed-upon plan regarding the following:

First, IEITI should read carefully the documents prepared and presented by EITI that led to EITI Board decision on 16 October 2019. The purpose is specifically to prepare a checklist on what has to be done, how, when, by whom and implement the planned actions well before 16 April 2021;

Second, make specific suggestions regarding how to improve the quality and coverage of the IEITI Annual Report; the IEITI Work-Plan; the IEITI Activity Report and any other publications by IEITI. All such documents should, preferably, be subject to external quality control before releasing them to the public since the experience of the last ten years indicates that these reports, particularly the annual reports are full of inaccuracies, flaws, copy & paste, wrong data among others;

Third, how to make MSG more proactive, productive and have effective role in particularly the following: drafting the ToRs for the Independent Administrator; preparation process of the annual report through more participatory approach; the coverage of the annual report pursuant to the latest EITI Standard; insure grater and growing impacts and encourage wider societal engagement and connectivity among other;

Fourth, IEITI should be an example of transparency by publishing on its website all what is related to its activities including records of MSG meetings, MSG members attendance verified by their signatures; issues debated and how decisions are taken, etc;

Fifth, insure full and timely data disclosure on every aspects of the extractive industry in the country, particularly by the Ministry and its State Companies operating in the upstream petroleum sector including both volumes and fiscal indicators; such data disclosure should be posted monthly and accessible through IEITI website;

Sixth, grant priority to the development of the human and systemic national efforts of the IEITI National Secretariat and their involvement in particularly the preparation of the annual reports, in the development of the needed database, in providing technical and professional supporting activities, in organizing workshops and activities among others;

Seventh, IEITI suffers from declining external financial support and funding that bound to impact the level and frequency of its activities. That was due largely to the removal of Iraq from the priority screen of NRGI; the suspension of Iraq by EITI in October 2017 and by the significant reduction of the World Bank funding. Luckily, Iraq had concluded recently (or in fact renewed) it is cooperation agreement with Norway’s NORAD’s Oil for Development program and, thus, IEITI is strongly advised to capitalize on this agreement and utilize different opportunities it offers;

Eighth, the entire above are feasible, doable and useful; IEITI should start promptly working on them. It might be relevant for IEITI to convene a well prepared “professional, action oriented workshop” for specialist and expert with proven track record to address the above aiming at drafting the workable and functional roadmap.

 

* I have covered, monitored and written extensively on IEITI since its inception; for background information and analysis on IEITI and that phase onwards, interested readers find more on my contributions, in Arabic and English, that are accessible through the following links:

http://www.iraq-businessnews.com/category/oil-gas/ahmed-mousa-jiyad/

http://www.akhbaar.org/home/search/?sq=Ahmed%20Mousa%20jiyad

http://www.alnoor.se/author.asp?id=7149

 

Mr Jiyad is an independent development consultant, scholar and Associate with the former Centre for Global Energy Studies (CGES), London. He was formerly a senior economist with the Iraq National Oil Company and Iraq’s Ministry of Oil, Chief Expert for the Council of Ministers, Director at the Ministry of Trade, and International Specialist with UN organizations in Uganda, Sudan and Jordan. He is now based in Norway (Email: mou-jiya(at)online.no, Skype ID: Ahmed Mousa Jiyad). Read more of Mr Jiyad’s biography here.